Archive for April, 2010


To their surprise, researchers at Georgetown University Medical Center (GUMC) have discovered that morphine (a derivate of the opium poppy that is similar to heroin) protects rat neurons against HIV toxicity – a finding they say might help in the design of new neuroprotective therapies for patients with the infection.

The discovery, being presented at the annual meeting of the Society of NeuroImmune Pharmacology, also helps explain why a subset of people who are heroin abusers and become infected with HIV through needle sharing don’t develop HIV brain dementia. This brain disorder includes cognitive and motor abnormalities, anxiety and depression.

„We believe that morphine may be neuroprotective in a subset of people infected with HIV,“ says the study’s lead investigator, Italo Mocchetti, PhD, Professor of neuroscience at GUMC. „That is not to say that people should use heroin to protect themselves – that makes no medical sense at all – but our findings gives us ideas about designing drugs that could be of benefit.


„Needless to say we were very surprised at the findings,“ he added. „We started with the opposite hypothesis – that heroin was going to destroy neurons in the brain and lead to HIV dementia.“

The researchers conducted the study because they knew that a number of HIV-positive people are also heroin abusers, and because of that, some are at high risk of developing neurological complications from the infection. Others, however, never develop these cognitive problems, Mocchetti says.

Because little is known about the molecular mechanisms linking opiates and HIV neurotoxicity, Mocchetti and his team conducted experiments in rats. They found that in the brain, morphine inhibited the toxic property of the HIV protein gp120 that mediates the infection of immune cells. With further investigation, they concluded that morphine induces production of the protein CCL5, which they discovered is released by astrocytes, a type of brain cell. CCL5 is known to activate factors that suppress HIV infection of human immune cells. „It is known to be important in blood, but we didn’t know it is secreted in the brain,“ says Mocchetti. „Our hypothesis is that it is in the brain to prevent neurons from dying.“

They say morphine blocked HIV from binding to CCR5 receptors it typically uses to enter and infect cells. The researchers believe CCL5 itself attached to those receptors, preventing the virus from using it. In this way, it prevented HIV-associated dementia. This effect, however, only worked in the M-trophic strain of HIV, the strain that most people are first infected with. It did not work with the second T-trophic strain that often infects patients later.

„Ideally we can use this information to develop a morphine-like compound that does not have the typical dependency and tolerance issues that morphine has,“ says Mocchetti.

April 17, 2010
Red Orbit
http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/…rain_from_hiv/

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INHALT
Zusammenfassung
1. Einleitung
1.1. Zum Frühverlauf der Schizophrenie
1.2. Zur Komorbidität von Psychose und Sucht
1.2.1. Epidemiologie
1.2.2. Erklärungsansätze zur Komorbidität
1.2.3. Probleme in der Therapie komorbider Patienten
1.3. Fragestellungen dieser Arbeit
2. Material und Methoden
2.1. Untersuchungsrahmen
2.2. Art der Datenerhebung
2.3. Beschreibung der Gesamt-Stichprobe
2.4. Beschreibung der Stichprobe der berücksichtigten Patienten
2.5. Zusammenfassung
3. Ergebnisse
3.1. Psychopathologie im Verlauf
3.2. Bestimmung der Parallelisierungszeitpunkte
3.3. Das Konsummuster zwischen 1988 und 1997
3.4. Varianzanalyse zum Konsummuster
3.5. Das Konsummuster an den Parallelisierungszeitpunkten
3.6. Einfluß von subjektiver Symptomatik und Diagnose-Zeitpunkt
4. Diskussion
4.1. Methodische Fragen
4.2. Diskussion der Ergebnisse
4.3. Fazit und Ausblick

weiterlesen: PsychoseundSucht_Studie

Okay, now the last 3. Chapters!

Chapter_8

Chapter_9

Chapter_10

Swim can not find the Chapter 7.,

he is deeply sorry for that!

Swim is bringing up now the  chapters 4, 5 and 6,

all giving a nice inside-view:

Chapter 1, 2 and 3-  https://exilope.wordpress.com/2010/04/09/chapter-1-organization-and-function-of-the-nervous-system/

Chapter 4: Anxiety Disorders: Panic, Generalized Anxiety, and Obsessive Compulsive Disorders

Chapter_4

Chapter 5: Psychotic Disorders: Schizophrenia

Chapter_5

Chapter 6: Attention and Developmental Disorders: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Chapter_6

Background: Injections of mixtures prepared from crushed tablets contain insoluble particles
which can cause embolisms and other complications. Although many particles can be removed by
filtration, many injecting drug users do not filter due to availability, cost or performance of filters,
and also due to concerns that some of the dose will be lost.
Methods: Injection solutions were prepared from slow-release morphine tablets (MS Contin®)
replicating methods used by injecting drug users. Contaminating particles were counted by
microscopy and morphine content analysed by liquid chromatography before and after filtration.
Results: Unfiltered tablet extracts contained tens of millions of particles with a range in sizes from
< 5 μm to > 400 μm. Cigarette filters removed most of the larger particles (> 50 μm) but the
smaller particles remained.

Commercial syringe filters (0.45 and 0.22 μm) produced a dramatic
reduction in particles but tended to block unless used after a cigarette filter. Morphine was retained
by all filters but could be recovered by following the filtration with one or two 1 ml washes.

The combined use of a cigarette filter then 0.22 μm filter, with rinses, enabled recovery of 90% of the
extracted morphine in a solution which was essentially free of tablet-derived particles.
Conclusions: Apart from overdose and addiction itself, the harmful consequences of injecting
morphine tablets come from the insoluble particles from the tablets and microbial contamination.
These harmful components can be substantially reduced by passing the injection through a
sterilizing (0.22 μm) filter. To prevent the filter from blocking, a preliminary coarse filter (such as
a cigarette filter) should be used first. The filters retain some of the dose, but this can be recovered
by following filtration with one or two rinses with 1 ml water.

Although filtration can reduce the
non-pharmacological harmful consequences of injecting tablets, this remains an unsafe practice due
to skin and environmental contamination by particles and microorganisms, and the risks of bloodborne
infections from sharing injecting equipment.

Read the whole  story:Filtration_and_injection_2010

Our behaviors, including our thoughts, sensations, emotions, remembering, and even our states of consciousness, are all a result of complex interactions between neurons distributed throughout our brain. These neurons form elaborate systems that communicate their activity by releasing small amounts of transmitter substances which act both on receiving neurons as well as on the neuron sending the message. In order for us to understand just how drugs act to treat certain psychological conditions, we must first understand the intricate and sometimes subtle ways in which neurons function to regulate our behaviors. We must also appreciate the complex systems of neurons within the brain that specialize in different functions including movement, emotions, learning and memory, and our motivational states

weiter geht es hier, ein echter leckerbissen:

psychopharmacologie 1

Chapter_2

Chapter_3

Ich bringe evt. den Rest auch noch!

Sehr interessanter Ausflug in die Medizin-Geschichte des 9. Jahrhunderts!

Der Artikel ist in Englisch!

Hier geht es weiter: pj_20031220_opium

Mal wieder etwas Politik, diesmal von der Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik!

Enjoy it:2010_S02_mss_ks